Electricity system of
Thailand is 220 V and 50 Hz.
Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), has
been primarily responsible for power generation and
transmission, whereas the Metropolitan Electricity
Authority (MEA) and the Provincial Electricity Authority
(PEA) share the responsibility of distributing electricity
to Bangkok and the provinces, respectively. EGAT reports to
the Office of the Prime Minister, whereas MEA and PEA
report to the Ministry of Interior.
EGAT's long-term plan is to increase the minimum power
reserve from 15% to 25% to raise energy supply security.
EGAT's plans of increasing net installed capacity by 30,929
MW will bring Thailand's total capacity to 43,918 MW by 2011.
Independent Power Producer
In 1995, the independent power producer (IPP) program was
launched in an effort to partly privatize state-controlled
power utilities. Foreign and local companies have shown
great interest in building, owning and operating large
power plants that will ease the state's burden of investing
in power generation.
The IPP projects will be wholly private undertakings. Some
of the key IPP terms set by the Government are :
any power prices submitted by IPPs should not exceed
EGAT's avoided cost
the contract for the power purchase agreement must be
between 20 and 25 years
the capacity of each project for commissioning in
1996-2002 must not exceed 1,400 MW, but may be expanded
during the years 2003-2006
investors must have proven technological capability
matching the required performance specifications
fuel choices must be clear, acceptable to the public,
have stable pricing structure, have secured supply and
support the Government's policy on fuel diversification for
Priorities for project sites will be given to the following
areas in the following order; central region, west coast
(e.g. Prachuab Khiri Khan), east coast (e.g. Rayong), other
regions and neighboring countries.
The Thai government is working seriously at
maintaining Thailand's water at international standards.
Thailandís annual average rainfall is 800,000
cubic metres, but can only retain 70,000. Only 40,000 cubic metres of rain
can actually be used.
A planned survey of water resources is aimed
at finding the best ways to manage the countryís water resources for
agricultural use and generating power.
The solution to Thailandís drought problems
may include securing irrigation water from neighbouring countries. The
government plans to seriously explore the possibility of sharing water
resources with Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos.
The combination of industrial growth,
population growth and rising incomes has led to an increased demand for
water. Demand is estimated to be growing 20 percent a year, but the
investment program of the Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA) has
increased supplies about 12 percent a year. The PWA has the capacity to
serve about 60 percent of the 10 million people living in the 220 cities and
towns under its jurisdiction with about 1.2 million cubic meters a day.
Industrial estates take either ground water
or surface water and treat it to supply factories in their estates. Some
estates take raw water from local authorities, treat it themselves and then
supply their clients. Factories that use deep wells as their water source,
especially those in the greater Bangkok area, are being pressured to stop
and buy water instead from regulated water suppliers.
As for Thailand, demand for water is about 53
billion cubic meters annually. Out of the volume, almost 90 percent is
allocated for agriculture, 6 percent for consumption, and the rest for
industrial use. Demand for water in the country is estimated at 70 billion
cubic meters annually in the next 10 years. Thailand consists of 25 river
basins, with an annual rainfall between 1,200 and 2,700 millimeters. The
amount of average annual runoff is 200 billion cubic meters, but only 38
million cubic meters, or 19 percent, can be stored in reservoirs.
Thailand's telecommunications services are at
an international standard, especially in urban areas such as Bangkok. There
is an abundance of fixed lines for offices and residences. The Bangkok metro
area is served by two fixed-line operators: the Telephone Organization of
Thailand (TOT), a state enterprise, and Telecom Asia, a private company.
Both can install phones in a timely fashion; usually a matter of days. Local
calls are not timed and carry a fixed charge of 3 baht per call. Areas
outside Bangkok are served by the TOT and the private company TT&T Public
Co., Ltd. The fixed line network has a total capacity of over 8 million
lines, of which about 7 million are in use. In addition, public telephones
are available nationwide.
International calls are handled by the
Communications Authority of Thailand (CAT), which provides direct access to
just about any country. International rates have been falling and as of
January 2004 there were substantial decreases in calls to the U.K., U.S.A.,
Australia and many other countries.
Mobile phones are easily available at
competitive prices from three main service providers using GSM digital
networks: Advanced Info Services (AIS), Total Access Communications (TAC)
and TA Orange. A wide range of service packages are available with many
prices and options from which to choose. The number of mobile subscribers
has soared from a less than 2 million in 1997 to about 15 million in January
Relative to the internet, about a dozen
private companies offer services for personal and corporate accounts.
Prepaid or subscription services are available at reasonable rates. Monthly
rates from some companies are as low as 700 baht per month for unlimited
service. The government has committed itself to making broadband internet
available and affordable. Broadband connections are widely available through
TOT plans to expand the existing core network
by using IP technology in order to unite technology and services; voice,
data and multimedia services on a single network based on NGN platform. This
is to enhance the efficiency and flexibility of network anagement to be
convenient in maintenance through a control center and can adequately
accommodate a wide array of new and advanced services. This expansion will
be able to support 60 Gbps for up to 1,603,440 broadband IP ports nationwide